Q.) What were the causes of the revolt of 1857? What effect did it have on Bihar? (65 BPSC/2020)

Ans– The revolt of 1857 was a result of the character and arrangements of provincial rule. The reasons for the revolt of 1857 like other earlier emerging rose out of all parts economic, political, regulatory, and socio-religious of the everyday presence of Indians faced by all segments and classes.

Economic causes–

  1. The colonial arrangements of the East India Company strained the traditional financial texture of the Indian exports and culture.
  2. Heavy tanks session under new revenue settlement placed his hands under a vicious cycle of debt dues.
  3. Unfair duty approaches against Indian Products
  4. The collapse of the traditional handicraft industry.
  5. Non-appearance of the beginning of industrialization on lines that hit seasons craftsman and small zamindars. Political causes–
  6. The East India companies’ strategy of magnification joined with broken pleasures and promises brought about the deficiency of political prestige for it.
  7. Policies, for example, “Effective control”, “Subsidiary Alliance” and “Doctrine of Lapse” cause doubt in the minds of kings of princely states and all administering kingdoms in India. Administrative causes–
  8. Rampant corruption in the company’s administration especially among the police, petty officials, and lower court is the major cause of discontent.
  9. The character of British rule conferred an unfamiliar and outsider look at it without flinching of Indians and the sort of non-attendant sway.

Socio-religious causes–

  1. The terms of social strict changes, for example, abolition of salt, widow remarriage, and women’s education were seen by an enormous part of the population as interference in the social and religious spaces of Indian culture by the British.
  2. Government decision of taxation of mosques and Temple lands and official measures, for example, the Religious Disabilities Act,1856. Military causes–
  3. Discontent among sepoys for economic, social, and strict reasons combined with an enormous history of rebellions.

Immediate causes–

  1. The revolt of 1857, in the end, broke out over the occurrence of greased cartridges. Rumors spread that the cartridges of new Enfield Rifles were greased with the fat of cows and pigs. Before loading the Rifles, the sepoys have to bite off the paper on the cartridges.
  2. The cows were sacred to the Hindus while that pig was taboo for the Muslims. Sepoys felt their religion in grave danger.

The effect of the revolt of 1857 in Bihar–

  1. The main significant incident in Bihar during the revolt was the Patna uprising of July 3 with Pir Ali at its very front. Pir Ali killed the deputy opium agent of the Patna opium agency, Dr. Lyell. This was an attack on the major source of colonial revenue. Gangetic Bihar along with Banaras and Gazipur area was the fundamental area of opium in the East India company. After the rebellion in Patna, sepoys of three of the regiments in Danapur revolted on 25 July 1857. This makes the start of a far and wide Revolt in Bihar, which went on for over a year.
  2. On 26 July, the troops reached Sadabad to organize themselves under the leadership of Veer Kunwar Singh, Raja of Jagdishpur.
  3. All troops in Gaya were strengthened by a large number of rebellions under the Bhojpuri rebels and the leadership of Jeodhar Singh and Haider Ali Khan.
  4. In Hazaribagh, the Santhal and some local leaders launch the movement against the British.
  5. Activities of Neelambar and Pitambar in Alliance with the Shero Zamindar made Palaman a center of serious popular activities during the revolt.
  6. Singhbhoom witnessed a struggle of the sepoys and other tribals of the district under the leadership of Arjun Singh.
  7. The uprising of the twelfth casualty at Sugauli on the Indo-Nepal line ultimately prompted the episode of Revolt in Champaran and Saran.

The revolt of 1857 is associated with the boldness and the courage of its Rebels. Even though they neglected to accomplish their target yet they prevail with regards to showing the seeds of patriotism among the Indian and paved the way for the future struggle for freedom.

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