Ans – The 6th century BC is marked as the start of religious and social movements within the Gangetic Valley teachings from Buddhism and Jainism. We talk about Mauryan Art and Architecture. Magadh was a very strong kingdom and spread its control over regions. By the 4th century BC, the well-versed power over an outsized part of India (Bihar along Gangetic plains) was more up to the mark.
The great Mauryan ruler Ashoka arose as an extraordinary supporter of Buddhism and Buddhist evangelist exercises that were observed during his guideline prepared for the advancement of Mauryan craftsmanship.
Mauryan art can be divided into two–
Mauryan court art –
1.) Palaces – Greek traveler Megasthenes portray the castle of the Maurya Empire as probably the best creation of humanity and Chinese Traveller Fe Hien called Mauryan royal residences as God-gifted monuments.
a.) It rests on an 80 pillar hall made up of wood.
b.) 700 feet wide moat around the palace.
c.) The pillars have gold vines and silver birds.
d.) Attractive wooden stage in the Assembly.
Materials used- Wood was used as the main material. Especially in ceilings.
Examples- Chandragupta Maurya Palace, The Mauryan capital at Patliputra, Ashoka’s Palace.
a.) The best specimens of the modern period are the Monolithic pillars of Ashoka which are found in different parts of the country for the propagation of Dhamma.
made up of sandstone Monolithic stone.
b.) Height of columns from 30 to 50 feet.
c.) The most of a pillar known as capital.
d.) The top portion of the pillar is carved with a figure like a bull, horse, lion, etc.
e.) These figures are standing on a square circular Abacus.
Objective- The most goal was to spread the Buddhist belief system and court orders inside the whole present-day Empire.
Architecture- Modern pillar is usually composed of four parts. Namely Shaft, capital, Abacus, and capital figure.
Example- Sarnath Lion Capital, Vaishali pillar, Laurita nandangarh, Laurita area.
3.) Stupas- Stupas were the palace of worship for Buddhists. it became an Emblem of Buddha Dharma and an important part of Buddhist monasteries.
a.) consists of a hemispherical dome-shaped called under, harmonica, and 17 on the topic. sometimes there were circular Pathways and gateways.
b.) Some of those two passwords were built at relics of Buddha at Rajgir, Kapilvastu, Vaishali, etc.
The material used- The center of the Stupa was of an unburnt break while the inverse external surface was made by utilizing consumed blocks, which were then covered with a thick layer of plaster, and also the Toran was decorated with wooden sculptures.
Examples- Sanchi stupa, Piprawaha stupa, and stupa at Bairat, Rajasthan.
Mauryan Folk Art– Except court art or Royal patronage cave architecture, sculpture, and pottery. These were the declarations of Art By individual exertion.
1.) Caves architecture – During the Maurya time caves were utilized as “viharas” the living quarters by the Jain and Buddhist priests. The caves during the Mauryan period are marked by a highly polished finish of the inside walls and carved gateways.
Example- The seven caves (Satvagraha) located in the region of Makdumpur, Jehanabad were made on orders of Ashoka for the Ajivika sect.
2.) Sculptures- The Statue of yaksha and Yakshi are the most important sculptures from the modern period. these were the object of worship related to all the religions i.e. Jainism Buddhism and Hinduism. The earliest mention of sculptures can be found in silappadikaram, a Tamilnadu text.
a.) A statue of two Jain saints from lohanipur.
b.) The sculpture of a laughing boy from Bulandi Bagh.
c.) Yakshini statue found at Didar Ganj.
3.) Pottery- Pottery of the Mauryan period is usually referred to as Northern black polished ware (NBPW). The pottery was characterized by Black paint and a highly lustrous finish was Generally used as a luxury item.
Centers- Kaushambi and Patliputra were the centers of NBPW pottery.
Impact on Bihar–
- The name Bihar is derived from the word viharas i.e. residence of Buddhist monks.
- Mauryan arts give evidence of the centralized administration of kingdoms and their continuity in Bihar.
- Mauryan art gave the best of temple architecture in later periods.
- The geometrical correct structure of the modern period becomes an interpretation for the development of geometry in the Gupta period.
Mauryan Art is a valuable treasure of India it gives us pride and self-confidence in agriculture Bihar is the capital of the Maurya Kingdom and has numerous prints of it.
Apart from the national emblem of India and state Emblem of Bihar, Mauryan art is also present at Rashtrapati Bhavan, The new Parliament building is going to be made on the Sanchi Stupa model.
The workmanship and design of this period were moderate, liberal, and common in nature. The worth of the stupa at Sanchi and the bull capital at Sarnath portray the significance and stand as a declaration of this brilliant time of Indian history.
Some related Questions for the same Answers :
- Throw light on Mauryan Art and analyze its impact in Bihar. (60-62 BPSC/2019)
- Discuss the features of Mauryan art and architecture and its relationship with Buddhism. (64th BPSC/2018)
- Discuss the salient features of Mauryan Art. (53-55 BPSC/2012)
- Analyze the salient features of Mauryan art and architecture. (47 BPSC/2007)
- Critically examine the chief characteristics of the Mauryan Art. (45 BPSC/2002)
- Identify the main features of the Mauryan Art as found in Bihar. (42 BPSC/1999)
- What are the distinctive features of Mauryan Sculpture? (40 BPSC/1995)