Ans– India after independence is mainly an agrarian society where more than 70% of the population depends on agricultural work but the production of food grains is not sufficient. We talk about the impact of globalisation on Indian agriculture. The first five-year plan focused on food security but after 1965-66 due to political and environmental issues, food was scarce. After that Government of India started the green revolution which is limited to Punjab Haryana and western UP. Not very much of the effect of the green revolution was seen in Bihar.
After 1991, LPG reforms in the agriculture sector grew at a moderate rate after private investment also. India’s agricultural sector is likely to grow by 3.6% from 2019-to 20. According to Economic Survey indicate that government needs to double the power income in 2024.
Today India positions second overall in ranch yield yet the monetary commitment of India’s GDP is consistently choosing with the country’s wide-based financial development, at having half of the populace reliant upon its business. Indian agribusiness is predominantly reliant upon the storm and the Indian rainstorm is truly erratic.
Indian agriculture is mainly dependent on the monsoon and the Indian monsoon is very unpredictable. El Nino years mostly affected the whole world and also the Indian monsoon which affect the production of agriculture. Production of Indian grains is few thathen0 MT this year which is the highest till now. India is now exporting food grains to China, Afghanistan, and many other neighboring countries.
Horticulture, fisheries, and animal husbandry is growing more than 10% on an average which is boosting the economy.
Productivity refers to— Total agriculture crop production/ Total land area.
Although, although India has attained self-sufficient food in surplus, staples. The farmers’ productivity is below then of Brazil, the USA, France, and other Nations.
For instance, the Indian wheat structure produces about 33% of the wheat per hectare contrasted with France. Indian complete component efficiency development stays underneath 2% per annum as opposed to China’s all-out-factor efficiency development of around 6% per annum even though China additionally has smallholding farmers.
Several studies suggest India can boost its rank in the world hunger index if its agricultural productivity boosts. Lessening rural poverty through a socially comprehensive technique that involves both horticulture as well as a non-farming business: Rural advancement should likewise help poor people, landless, ladies, planned standings, and clans.
Subsequently, desperation facilitating is a central backbone of the country’s advancement endeavors of the Government and the World Bank.
Bihar is a poor state and it’s more than 70% of the population dependent on the agriculture sector but here agriculture has suffered from natural disasters, uneven monsoon, a greater number of marginal farmers, and-mechanism action pharming, and many forward and backward linkages. Agricultural production in Bihar is less than the national average which is affecting its economy and food security.
Measures to increase the agricultural production in Bihar–
- Private investment
- Transport facilities
- Indian monsoon and floods
- Irrigation facilities
- Institutional credits
- Proper marketing facilities
- Consolidation of Holdings of farmlands
- Cold storage and food processing
- Mechanization of farming
- Cooperative farming
Bihar mostly suffers new natural disasters like floods and drought situation which is mainly due to the Himalayan River taking much amount of water from monsoon streams and floods the South Bihar, resulting in loss of human life, livestock, and Agriculture. need to the corporation and make a permanent solution for India and Nepal to reduce the flood frequency. Also, to talk over multi-purpose model projects like Gandak and Kosi to tackle floods and drought.
Bihar needs to boost its transportation and communication infrastructure for marketing and input of farming. Agriculture education and awareness will improve productivity because farmers will reduce the use of Urea and other product, input prices will produce and the market will use the income also. Cooperative farming will also increase productivity because mainly here are marginal farmers. organic farming will also help to increase productivity because here land is more fertile.
The government of India as well as the state government of Bihar has started many schemes like e-Nam, PMSKY, PMFBY, and subsidies over farming inputs. Rohtas district has recorded the highest productivity in rice and wheat.