Ans- Farming is the foundation of the Indian economy. We talk about Indian Agriculture. This area assumes a huge part is of rural livelihood, work, and national food security. Practically 70% of India’s country families rely essentially upon agriculture for their livelihood. While the commitment of agriculture and allied areas to GDP is almost 17%. It is additionally a significant raw material supplier for some agro-based enterprises.
Problems in Indian agriculture: –
1.) Small and fragmented land holdings- In India 85% of agrarian land is under 2 hectares. This makes it farmers harder to achieve economies of scale. They deal with issues with low efficiency with high creation costs.
2.) Mechanization of Farming- Green revolution took place in India in the late ’60s. After more than 40 years of the green revolution in the agriculture sector, we still have not achieved complete mechanization.
3.) High costs of farm inputs- throughout the long term, paces of farm inputs have expanded complex. These costs of manure, fertilizer, farm work costs, and HYV seeds have increased. To take care of the issue of seeds, the government in Bihar has made a few strides like Bihar state seed company, gene banks, and seed banks.
4.) Irrigation- The water system is the most significant farming contribution to a tropical country like India where precipitation is extremely questionable. Government zeroing in on miniature – water systems like dribble water system Sprinkler. Additionally thinking of water preservation techniques like Ahar Pyne (South Bihar), Johad, kulls.
5.) Lack of crop Diversification- In India, more importance is laid on main crops(wheat, rice) and different harvests are given an optional status. Nitrogen-fixing leguminous harvests are disregarded, which led to losing fertility of Soil and a decrease in soil fruitfulness.
6.) Agricultural Marketing – In absence of sound marketing, farmers rely on nearby merchants and go-betweens for the disposal of their products, which are sold at a low cost by middlemen. To guarantee makers not be taken advantage of and get fair costs, the government has brought eNAM, eRAKAM, and adjusted APMC Act.
7.) Uncertain climatic change/ natural disasters- climatic change refers to uncertain rainfall or overflow of rivers. South Bihar which is prone to floods, loses its crops due to floods.
Programs run by the government for the development of Indian agriculture are-
1.) Soil health card scheme- to keep the need for balanced use of fertilizers it aims to promote soil health by use of inputs soil nutrients.
2.) Nutrient-based subsidy scheme government announces a fixed rate of subsidy on each nutrient of subsidized fertilizers namely nitrogen, phosphate, potash, and sulfur.
3.) Kisan credit card scheme- introduced in 1998 pointed toward furnishing satisfactory and opportune credit with adaptable and worked on techniques for agriculture.
4.) Interest subvention scheme- was sent off for momentary harvest advance in 2006. 2% interest grant given to farmers from NABARAD.
5.) Pradhan Mantri Kisan Mandan Yojana is an old-age pension scheme for all landholding small and marginal farmers in the country.
6.) Pradhan Mantri facal Bima Yojana aims to support sustainable production in the agriculture sector by providing financial support to farmers.
7.) Pradhan Mantri Kisan scheme income support of Rs. 6000 to all landholding farmers in three installments every four months.
Steps by Bihar Government-
1.) Bihar state organic mission is being implemented in 12 districts to promote organic farming in the state to protect the environment soil and water resources from pollution
2.) state government is implementing an agricultural roadmap since 2008 Government of India has conferred the Krishi Karman Award to the state for its achievements in the productivity of maize and wheat.
3.) The Chief Minister Horticulture mission there is a provision for grants for promoting rooftop horticulture in five cities of the state including Patna
4.) Under the Jal Jeevan Hariyali scheme, the state government as of late sent off “Jalvayu ke Anukul Krishi karykram”.
Thus, agriculture is a multidimensional problem and the government is trying to bring out the solution to these issues. Agriculture in India is not just an economic activity it also has social and cultural significance only when the issues related to this sector are fixed India can realize the goal of sustainable development.