Ans– Tropical cyclones are those that formed between the tropics and rotate in the center clockwise direction. tropical cyclones are characterized by low atmospheric pressure, high winds, and heavy rains. tropical cyclones are among the four most destructive weather phenomena and also it is known by other names like hurricanes and typhoons.
The surface of ocean waters warms up because of evaporation and as warm air from the outer layer of warm water moves, it occupies the space and the air thusly rising to make a pattern of warm air going up. this system grows in height and size and spreads out forming a tropical cyclone as it rotates faster, an eye is formed in the Centre with low air pressure.
Why the Bay of Bengal witnessed more cyclones–
- Over the past 100 years, Bengal witnessed 308 cyclones including 103 severe ones. compared to only 48 tropical cyclones in the Arabian Sea.
- The highest sea surface temperature which is about 28 degrees Celsius per year enhances the chances of the formation of cyclones.
- The Bay of Bengal receives a constant source of freshwater from Ganga and Brahmaputra keeping service water reference and making it impossible for warm water to mix properly with cool water below keeping the surface warm and prone to cyclones.
- Cyclones from the Pacific enter the Bay of Bengal due to the lack of large landmasses to weak Cyclone.
Coastal regions are especially in fear of cyclones, mainly those that are highly populated. The solid breezes can harm structures and foundations, while downpour and tempest floods can prompt flooding. Different dangers avalanches, landslides, and seaside disintegration.
“This year both Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal were around 1 degree hotter than typical (toward the beginning of May) and thus the circumstances helped expand the strength of the typhoons”
-Jayaraman Srinivasa (Researcher, Divecha Center for Climate Change, Indian Institute of Science.)
India has countless urban communities along the coast. They house millions and have gigantic spontaneous development, with the poor continually moved to low-lying regions, making them especially helpless against serious tempests and flooding.
Regular tempest breakers, for example, mangroves have been chopped down lately. The disappearing mangroves around Mumbai are a valid example. The harm from Cyclone’s “Amphan” would have been a lot more noteworthy if the mangroves of the Sundarbans’ backwoods had not dulled the tempest’s fierceness fairly.
Cyclones can release horrendous tempest surges. Tsunami-like flooding. at the point when they make landfall. They can be the deadliest piece of a typhoon and are just to some degree impacted by wind speeds. The expression “storm flood” alludes to rising oceans prepared by a tempest, making a surge of water a few meters higher than the ordinary tide level.
Why cyclones are increased in the Arabian Sea–
- There has been seen a 32% increase in the number of cyclones between 2014 to 2019 in the Arabian Sea.
- The recent “Taukate” cyclone makes this year as third Consecutive year when cyclones came close to West Coast. in 2019 cyclone “Vayu” came while in 2020 cyclone “Nisarg” hit the Western coast.
- The increase in cyclones is due to a sudden increase in sea surface temperature with rising of 1.2 degrees Celsius.
- High sea surface temperature is due to a rise in emissions and global warming which is rapidly increasing and leading to an increase in the frequency and intensity of cyclones.
On Earth, cyclones are the absolute most destructing natural powers to human existence. However, we experience them consistently, especially in tropical regions.
The tropical cyclone is a natural disaster that India faces every year and whether as global warming it has been increasing on the western coast as well. provoking the Indian ocean observing system and incorporating global warming signals in weather models can help in tackling tropical cyclones and better response and disaster management is needed of course.
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