Ans– In the 19th century, India witnessed many tribal protests across India. It ranges from the Indo-Gangetic plain to South India. Bengal- Bihar– Orissa had a great impact on British Colonial rule, frequent separations, acquisition of land, and religious interference aggravated the tribal protest in that region.
Characteristics of tribal protests–
- Religious in nature– many protests by tribes due to religious beliefs hurt by the British. it led to protests against tribal people. Example– Munda revolt (1869- 99)
- Against exploitation of zamindars– some revolts and protests trigger due to acquire of land and push to follow certain agricultural practices. For example– The Santhal movement (1856) was the consequence of the creation of Santhal Pargana.
- Against British and Colonial rule– almost all tribal protests were against British imperialist policies and laws. Example– Kuka movement (Punjab), Indigo revolt (Bansal).
- Fight for economic survival– heavy interference of British India and local economic affairs resulted in the shutdown of the handicraft industries, and local livelihood effects, which also Trigger tribal protests. example– Santhal revolt (1856).
- Fought the British with the help of traditional method– use of guerrilla Warfare technique,” Bhala”, “teer”, “Dhanush”. it is a common characteristic of tribal protest.
- Local people and the whole community participate– many times local villagers supported the travel protests even the whole community engaged in it. example– Munda revolt.
Although, various tribal protests happened across India. But some of them gain recognition in history and such as the Munda revolt, Kuka, Kol Uprising, Santhal revolt, Payskaaa revolt, etc. Tribals are harmonious adoring individuals. Their connection to the land is unrivaled. They have commonly opposed attacks on their domain.
However, all around created areas exploited the harmony of the tribes and took advantage of them completely. The British put forth genuine attempts to enter the tribal regions chiefly for lay correspondence networks to reinforce their regulatory control. They needed a trouble-free section for their mail runners who were deterred by the tribal while going through their areas. The British infiltration into the tribal regions was fought by the tribes and had now and again brought about violent responses.
Causes of failure of the tribal revolt–
- Distributed and a united way of fighting– Mini small group of people fighting with different Zamindar for British officials at the same time in different areas. lack of coordination among them.
- Use of the old traditional method of fighting– use of Guriella warfare gain success at the certain limit but ultimately defeated against having you Troops and weapons.
- Lack of Elite and intellectual participation– many intellectual San educated acted as neutral and give no support to the protests.
- Advanced British weapons and artillery– British army and police were trained and equipped with advanced weapons and equipment leading to the defeat of tribal protest.
- Fight for own cause– every travel protest fighting for its cause in different groups leads to cause of failure.
However, these early developments made a solid culture advancing articulation of nearby disputes against imperialism, they additionally confronted specific limits. However as single occasions, these rebellions were strong and unavoidable in their district; according to the public point of view, they were restricted and separated occasions that didn’t catch the famous creative mind of the country at large.
This restricted the impact that these uprisings might have had. Also, the greater part of these uprisings emerged from disappointment over nearby complaints, and the remainder of the country couldn’t relate to the disturbing people and express sympathy for their complaints. The uprisings were not progressive in thoughts, thought, or philosophy. The efforts of tribal protestors had gained one step forward outlook to fighting against the imperialistic British Empire which resulted in mass Revolt in different regions.