Q.) Discuss various Directive Principles however this was implemented in Bihar after 1950.

Ans– The Directive Principles of State Policy are the beliefs that the states should remember while planning approaches and acting regulations. The Directive Principles of the State Policy (DPSPs) set out the rules for the state and are impressions of the general goals set down in the Preamble of the Constitution. Dr. BR Ambedkar depicts these standards as clever highlights of the Indian Constitution. DPSP are listed in part IV of the constitution from articles 36 to 51 derived from the Irish constitution in 1937.

What are directive principles & what is directive principles of state policy?

Although there is not enough official class classification of DPSP for a better understanding, we can classify them into three–

  1. Socialist principles – are based on the ideology of socialism.
  2. Gandhian principles – are based on the ideas of Mahatma Gandhi.
  3. liberal intellectual principles – based on the ideology of liberalism.

Beginning around 1950, progressive legislatures in the state have made a few regulations and formed different projects for carrying out the DPSP.

Implementation of DPSP in Bihar–

Article 38 – states to secure a social order for the promotion of the welfare of people.
Article 39 – to maintain adequate means of livelihood and equal distribution.

Implementation of Articles 38 and 39 –

  1. After the establishment of the Planning Commission in 1950 many plans were introduced to secure social and economic justice and reduce inequalities.
    a.) Land Reforms Act, 1980
    b.) Bihar Bhoodan Act, 1954
    c.) Bihar consolidation of holding and prevention of fragmentation Act, 1956
    1. Economic development –
      a.) bonded labor system abolition act, 1976
      b.) child labour prohibition and Regulation Act, 1986Article 41 – right to work, education, and public assistance in certain classes.
  2. Implemented in Bihar in form of MGNREGA, Jeevika mission, Jawahar Rozgar Yojana, Swarna Jayanti gram swarozgar Yojana.
  3. Old age pension for people more than 60 years i.e. Mukhyamantri Vridhjan Pension Yojana.
  4. Mukhyamantri Swayam Sahayata Bhatta Yojana for the unemployed as an allowance.

Article 40 – provision for organization of village panchayats.

  1. The three-tier Panchayati Raj system was introduced and provided constitutional status by 73rd Amendment Act, 1992.
  2. 50% reservation for women in panchayats.

Article 43 – To promote cottage industries on an individual or Corporation basis in rural areas.

  1. Beekeeping, sericulture, fishery.
  2. Establishment of khadi and village Industries commission and cooperative in form of COMFEED. Article 45 – Provision for early childhood care and education to children below the age of six years.
  3. Anganwadi education provides basic education to children, especially in rural areas.

Article 46 – Promotion of educational and economic interest of SC/ST and other weaker sections.

  1. Particular reservation for disabled.
  2. Bihar government approves 10% reservation for the weaker section in the general quota.
  3. Scholarship for girls and weaker sections through mukhyamantri Kanya utthan Yojana.
  4. 35% reservation to women in government jobs.

Article 47 – To raise the level of nutrition and the standard of living to improve public health.

  1. Mid-day Meal
  2. primary health center
  3. free vaccination
  4. Ban of liquor in states in 2016. Article 48 – Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry.
  5. Krishi input subsidy scheme.
  6. Ban on cow slaughter since 1955.
  7. Pashupalan loan scheme.
  8. Article 48A – To protect and improve involvement and safeguard forest and wildlife.
  9. Jal Jeevan Hariyali Yojana.

Thus, the directive principle of State Policy can contribute much towards the development of the country as part of the “instrument of instructions”.

In contrast to Fundamental Rights, the Directive Principles of State Policy (DPSP) are non-restricting in nature which implies they are not enforceable by the courts for their infringement. They, be that as it may, force an ethical constraint on the state experts for their execution.

These are non-justiciable however Judiciary gives these parts equal importance and attention on the ground that all the parts of the constitution must be read together.

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