Q.) Discuss the spread of Western Education in Bihar between 1858-1914. (65th BPSC/2020)

Ans– Bihar has had a glorious heritage in the field of western education since ancient times. it has been home to one of the oldest universities in India. Nalanda, Odantapuri, and Vikramshila got international fame.

Regardless, the custom of realizing which has its beginning in old times was lost during the middle age time frame. Bihar saw its revival during the latter part of British rule.

Pre-British era– Sanskrit and Persian are two popular languages and four types of institutional organizations–

  1. Pathshala and Muktabs– Elementary education.
  2. Chatuspadi and Madaras– Higher education. In 1781, Hastings set up the Calcutta Madrasa and in 1791 the Sanskrit college at Varanasi was established.

The enlightened Indians and evangelists began applying tension on the public authority to advance current and common Western training, as they naturally suspected that Western schooling was the solution to the social, financial, and political ills of the country.

Missionaries believed that the Western education would destroy the faith of Indians and take them to Christianity. Raja Ram Mohan Roy, the father of the Indian Renaissance faced bitter criticism from the aristocrats but supported western education and established Brahmo Samaj in 1813.

In any case, woods dispatch in 1854, otherwise called the “Magna Carta of English Education in India” drove the underpinning of English schooling in India with a financial plan of 1 lakh rupees to spend on training. Critical occasions after government approaches-

  1. Systemized the progressive system from Vernacular elementary schools to partnered colleges in the administration of Calcutta, Bombay, and Madras.
  2. advanced English as the vehicle for higher investigations and Vernacular at the school level.
  3. laid weight on female and professional schooling and the Teacher’s preparation.
  4. stressed specialized and commercial schooling.
  5. for a purpose that the instruction executed in government foundations ought to be common.

Macaulay was the primary individual throughout the entire existence of the Indian school system who made monetary assets the focal point of instructive exercises. He said, “The awards which are produced using the public purse for the consolation of Literature vary in no regard from the awards which are produced using similar satchel for different objects of genuine or assumed utility.”

That’s what he inferred assuming allowances are given to understudies of Sanskrit and Arabic from assets of British then it ought to get the British some addition. The man can be credited with establishing starting points for regarding training as an ‘area’. Subsequently the main part of the improvement of an individual, schooling will currently need to demonstrate its worth to fulfill its situation as a significant ‘area’, whose speculation will rely upon the return.

Landmark establishment–

  1. The first university in India was Calcutta University (1857).
  2. Bihar was part of the Bengal Presidency. Show Patna college was established on 9 January 1863.
  3. in 1863, Zila School at Deoghar, Motihari and Chaibasa were also established.
  4. Hunter Education Commission in 1882 confirmed its recommendation for primary and secondary education.
  5. In 1902, Raleigh Commission was set up to go into the conditions and prospects of universities in India.
  6. In 1913 under the pressure of Nationalist leaders,’ the government passed a resolution on education policy.

This native training gave more pressure on the grant of dialects instead of science and innovation and when the British came to India as brokers, Persian was the court language, and regardless of strict confidence, the two Hindus and Muslims learned Persian to acquire occupations under the leaders of pre-pilgrim India.

Other than Madarsas and Patashalas, there too existed progressed focuses of learning in dialects alongside standard schools showing language capability given oral practice and remembrance of the texts. The British who obtained regional control and became political bosses didn’t meddle in the instructive field till 1813.

Saddler University Commission (1917- 19)–

  1. Reviewed the entire field from school education to university education.
  2. school courses should be designed to prepare students for the university stage.
  3. female education applied scientific and technological education, and teacher’s training including those for professional and vocational colleges extended.

The education of the mass was neglected by the British, which is evident from the fact that the literacy rate in India was 16% at the time of independence. their Policy was focused only to produce “cheap clerks” who could help them in their pursuit of economic subjugation of India.

The only good it did to India was it introduced the modern principle of democracy, equality, and rule of law and soon the educated Indians came to know about the hypocrisy of the British and began to fight for its independence through various organizations by the educated middle class.

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