Q.) Critically examine the evolution of Indian nationalism since the late 19th century? (64th BPSC/2019)

Ans– Indian patriotism in the nineteenth century emerged to address the difficulty of foreign domination. We talk about Indian nationalism. The actual states of British rule help the development of patriotism among the Indian people. English rule helped the development of patriotism among the Indians through immediate and backhanded results which gave the material and moral scholarly circumstances for the improvement of the National Movement in India. Each class, each part of Indian society found that its advantages were enduring on account of unfamiliar rulers.

Each class and each part of Indian culture slowly found that its advantages were enduring because of British rulers.

Foreign rule and their policy towards a different section of society–

  1. Peasants– a large part of produce as revenue zamindar, money lenders, landlords.
  2. Artisans– were ruined by the influx of foreigners.
  3. Laborers– were used by all means and used to send far away from home.

Other than this some of the people who were earlier and during the first half of the 19th century served with the British also got this satisfied by the policies of rule.

The development of present-day patriotism in the provinces is connected to hostile pilgrim developments since individuals found their solidarity during the time spent in their battle against imperialism. The feeling of being mistreated under imperialism gave a common bond that integrated a wide range of gatherings.

British Imperialism- The English government was the main element, which added to the ascent of patriotism in India. It made the topographical unification of the nation conceivable. Before the coming of the British, individuals of the south were normally independent of the remainder of India except for a few short stretches. English government made individuals think as one country.

Educated Indians– The newly acquired knowledge and rise of Intelligence can understand the economic and political conditions of the country.

The Indian capitalist– Rising Indian capitalist to the sum of sufferings and the hands of imperialism. Their growth was checked by the tariff and taxation of the transport policies.

Rise of national sentiments– National opinions groove Indians since India was bound together and welded into a country during the late nineteenth century. The introduction of the modern system by the British led to different developments in Indians.

Western education– Western education led to the spread of the modernization of thoughts like the contemporary Nationalist movement of Rousseau, John Stuart hill, and thinkers like Mazzini, and Garibaldi.

Role of press and literature– The breast became the main instrument in spreading the message of Patriotism and modern economic, social, and political ideas all to all Indians.

Rediscovery of the past– Rise of self-confidence in people by Nationalist leaders by countering the propaganda of Western thinkers who wrote that Indians were destined to rule.

Racial discrimination– Claims of social superiority by the Englishman and less participation of Indians in the administration lead to Tu bonding of all Indian irrespective of caste, religion, and provisions giving an organization of Nationalist mindset and unification.

These all factors induced in the people of India in different ways and these ways became the base of further Nationalist movement.

However, besides these, all developments in the national movement, some of the development mark the rise of communalism, and different religions and in the meeting of the challenge of cultural imperialism of the role, many Indians landed to ignore the fact that many respected people of India were culturally backward. a false sense of pride and was produced which tended to prevent Indians from looking critically at this society.

From the above discussion, we can say that the foundations of the Indian Nationalist movement in the 19th Century lay in the fact that increasingly British rule became a major cause of India’s economic backwardness which became a major barrier in India to the economic, social, cultural, intellectual and political development.

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