Ans- Labour force participation rate (LFPR) Is characterized as the number of people in the workforce per 1000 people in a particular topography. We talk about the highlights of the economic survey 2019-20.
According to Bihar economic survey report, 2019-20 the findings indicate abysmal low participation of females in Bihar compared to the National level.
Despite being a labor circular with a demographic dividend in the working-age group 15 to 59 years. Such findings concern not per economic review but also knocking the prevalence of the laggard repressive societal and cultural norms.
The probable reason behind this outcome–
1. Socio-cultural reason –
a.) class and caste impediment forces females to stay out of the economic activities.
b.) Bihar faces 98% of total migration per annum by women due to their marriage only 2.9% of them move for employment.
c.) Bihar has the highest total fertility rate of 3.3 than the national average of 2.3 and only 23% use modern contraceptives, which is another reason for their less participation.
d.) Impediment for women’s physical mobility — lack of proper physical transport, 77% of women in Bihar walk between 22 and 10 km daily to their workplace.
2. Economic reason–
a.) 58% of females in Bihar engaged in agriculture and altered activities, but only 14% have agricultural land holdings, and 92%are under small and marginal landholders.
b.) Improper availability of formal credit for women in micro-Enterprises and informal sectors.
c.) Lack of Agricultural jobs in rural areas and declining agriculture implementation without the emergence of other opportunities suitable for women.
d.) Maximum participation in paid caregiving work and domestic chores.
3. Educational gap–
a.) Digital education after covid-19 has widened their education.
b.) Only 30% of the literacy rate is among Bihar SC females.
c.) Increase in enrolment for higher education by females has minimized their population in the labor force.
d.) Decline in school dropout count from 62.8% in 2012 to 62.5 % in 2017, Decrease the participation in the labor force for the perpetuation of longer education.
Women’s participation indicates the progress of that community. as per Dr. BR Ambedkar said, “I measure the progress of a community by the degree of progress which women achieved.”
Bihar government initiative to pave the women’s progress–
1992 – 2 days of menstrual leave per month for working women.
2006 – 50% reservation to female in Panchayati Raj institution + Mukhyamantri Balika Cycle Yojana.
2013 – 35% reservation for female in police + 50% reservation for female in cooperative.
2016 – 35% reservation for females across the public sector.
recently the horizontal quota of 33.3% reservation for females in medical and engineering colleges is another Landmark decision.
Q.) Do you think a horizontal quota for women in higher education could be an important driver for improving the FLFP?
Role of horizontal reservation in female LFPR–
- It is caste neutral so encourages the break of the barrier of caste-specific jobs.
- More participation informal sector, as has been seen just site economic turmoil leads note repercussions to women in the informal sector during covid-19.
- Used more and government ratio and female literacy rate.
- Further, strengthen other societal welfare.
- Reduce child labor; as Amartya Sen said “There is considerable evidence that women’s education and participation 10 to reduce the mortality rate of child and their labor work”.
- Reduce violence against them which has been maximized after covid-19.
The Other measures to handle female participation are–
- Widen the scope of skill development.
- Strict law for equal wages in the informal sector.
- Easy credit facility for female entrepreneurs.
- Easily access to safe physical transport and encourage more in terms of a healthy diet.
- The basic and core dimension is societal values and attitudes which must be changed–
a.) Attitude against gender stereotype.
b.) Acceptance of girls’ capability and their decision-making ability.
c.) Value for the dignity of women must be taught to children.
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